Thursday, December 21, 2023

CHAPTER 5 of the book DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE from the FOOTHILLS of MOUNT TIMPANOGOS

 It is offered to all interested as a 
Christmas & New Year's gift
with the prayer that it will be of inspiration and blessing enhancing your life 
as it did mine.



INTRODUCTION


AUTUMN in the FOOTHILLS of TIMPANOGOS




THE "SENTINELS" 
STAND GUARD ABOVE  GROVE CREEK CANYON
and MOUNT TIMPANOGOS 

If you've never noticed "THE SENTINELS" look at the panorama 
below of the Grove Canyon area and you'll see ALMOST 
DEAD CENTER  
what I zoomed in on with my long telephoto lens 
 I'm not kidding, they are there.....you just have to develop an eye for the 
DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE.

Many of the VISIONS of NATURE are shown  
to you throughout my book as you've never seen them before.  
I'm in December preparing myself for the approximately 
100th   time in the 
2023 Season to leave the Trailhead and hike the
 FOOTHILLS of TIMPANOGOS...... 

........ seeking to find, photograph and document more 
DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE
to share with all of my friends as well as to  
persist with this miraculous remedy that has given me new life. 
 A million thanks to the divine Creator who lovingly organized and
 set in motion all of these wonders. 

Thousands of others who love the great outdoors 
did the same this season.


Each in their own way and with all kinds of wonderful motivations and unending blessings. 


In our last chapter I began featuring 
"THE MOST IMPORTANT PLANT IN THE WEST!"
SAGEBRUSH 

In this  chapter I will first introduce again a tiny VISION of
 nature that was actually one that ended life in the foothills when
 most life went into hibernation for the long Winter....but it kept alive
 under the snow..... and was alive when the thaw came and soon
 blossomed.....and now 9 months later blossomed again and with its
 fern-like beautiful leaves continuing to give life to the deer, the rabbits, and 
interestingly NOW TO ME as I use her in my salads.

REDSTEM FILAREE or STORK'S BILL 
Its flower is only about 1/8th inch in diameter.  In  December it is still blossoming and growing...


.....and now for the first time in the 
Spring/Summer/Autumn 2023 season is being.....
.....eaten, yes some by me for my salads, but snow in the high country is pushing deer and elk ....

....  down to the foothills.... ....and we see above they are nibbling Filaree, which plant will help them through the winter, along with Sagebrush and others.

Notice how beautiful FILAREE makes the deer....and can have you sleek and shinny too!

FILAREE never fails to wow me, like the shot today, December 26th, after several real cold days has this tiny, beautiful plant become more spectactular  then ever.

And some I've quite easily transplanted, making sure to not cut the tap root, and doing well in my home.....when sunny I move them outside, then back inside for the cold nights


I've also got some sagebrush going, and will have a fun time in the Spring and Summer with 
THE BEST OF THE FOOTHILLS 
landscaping my tiny Cabin-A home.
***************

Now with 
CHAPTER  5, 
 the last in this online book?...I'm afraid not!
I actually have neglected the sort of amazing 
dead part of the foothills.
...THE ROCKS...
and I have a  large file that is also colorful and spectacular that, along with 
my  long-time geology history,  I'll likely get to it  
helping me avoid cabin fever during the winter and have 
that part of my legacy in the printed book!
**********
But, for now:
First, let's get to know new 
DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE, 
and get some good information that will increase our 
AWE at what the Creator has done for us. 


So, 
1.   we'll see PLANTS NOT REPORTED ON UNTIL NOW, 
2.  pictures of heretofor UNMENTIONED  & UNIDENTIFIED,
3.  have a short tour meeting  DRY CANYON, the 3rd of the Foothills of Timpanogos, 
4.  then  a PHOTO-ALBUM SUMMARY  of all of the DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE we have enjoyed during this 2023 Season,
5. next to last, an introduction to Chapter 6: "The Foundation of All Divine Visions of Nature," and last....
6. Revealing the hoped for and maybe last  of 4 "IMPOSSIBLE DREAMS" in ONE  lifetime!
*************
NEW PLANTS NOT REPORTED YET:
Let's begin with a quite unique, pretty and even useful creation
1. 
REDROOT BUCKWHEAT

Red Root Buckwheat is common in low foothill and mountain dry meadows and sometimes numbers in the hundreds or thousands giving a white-to-pink tinge to the meadows. The long-lasting flowers are in elongated racemes atop a long-necked, leafless stem.



Buckwheat contains a number of healthy nutrients but needs to be
 prepared properly, and eaten with caution.  Check out sites like:
and 



REDROOT BUCKWHEAT groats, 
or the hulled kernels or seeds are more nutritious than oats, but would require a lot of work to get enough to be worthwhile.  They need to be boiled before adding to a salad unless you are an insect like we see below enjoying himself.



Native Americans used this plant for a number of health problems,
 similar to what I read from bulletins that tell of its benefits, like the
 one quoted below.



website tells us:
Buckwheat tea, also known as soba tea or 'soba-cha' in Japanese, is a type of tea made from roasted buckwheat groats, which are the hulled seeds of the buckwheat plant. Despite its name, buckwheat is not related to wheat and is gluten-free, making it a suitable choice for those with gluten sensitivities. Buckwheat is a grain-like seed. It's nutritious, rich in antioxidants, and often used in various food preparations like flour and noodles. In India, it is used to prepare food when people are observing a fast, especially during Navratri and Janmashtami.

To make buckwheat tea, the groats are first roasted to bring out their nutty and toasty flavor. After roasting, the groats can be steeped in hot water to make a fragrant and earthy-tasting tea. Buckwheat tea can be enjoyed hot or cold and is popular in East Asian countries, particularly Japan, however, it's quickly becoming popular worldwide due to the array of health benefits it can provide.
Buckwheat tea is packed with antioxidants like rutin and quercetin, along with other powerful compounds. These antioxidants work by fighting off harmful free radicals in your body. By doing this, they help lower the chances of chronic diseases. So, sipping on buckwheat tea is not only tasty but also a great way to keep your body healthy and strong.
Today Heart issues are rising at a fast pace and people are looking at incorporating natural remedies to manage certain conditions associated with it. Buckwheat tea's antioxidants may help lessen the chance of facing heart issues. They do this by lowering your blood pressure, cutting bad cholesterol, and making your blood vessels work better. Try to incorporate this healthy beverage into your diet in place of your regular caffeinated beverages.

The leaves are also edible, and used to make tea, but so far for me I just appreciate the beauty I see when I zoom in on the flowers.
**************


But, life is not always PEACHES & CREAM, so to do well we have
 to learn also about one that has a thorny side to it and cause us to have a bit of caution.

2.
GOAT HEAD or PUNCTURE WEED


Tells us

Puncturevine or goathead is a prostrate, summer annual, mat-forming, broadleaf plant with an extensive root system. Listed as a “C-rated*” noxious weed in California, puncturevine produces many burs with sharp spines that can injure humans and animals, as well puncture bicycle tires.



All parts of the plant are poisonous.
but the plant does have a positive side....


LIFE SEASONS website tells us:  
In China, it is referred to as goat head and has been used for generations to tonify the kidneys, treat headache, vertigo and itchy skin caused by allergic reactions (1). Ayurvedic medicine utilizes extracts from the root and fruits for male virility, low libido and increasing overall vitality.
*******************

Inspite of so much that we have discovered in the foothills there incredibly are still  other loose ends, another I have a partial  photographic life history of  life, like....

3. 
DESERT MADWORT
Again I'm introducing you to a plant I didn't follow well.  
But I was lucky to find in my files a picture of it when in the early green stage from my days in the foothills near Springville.
I'll do a better job in 2024.


 
In December the plant still has green leaves  on the stem as we can see below. 


It is a plant native to Africa and Eastern Europe.  It was brought to the U.S. for it's possible medical benefits, which purportedly are:  Curing hiccups, mental illness and rabies.    


In the 2024 season I'll document this plant from germination.
*****************

4.
BROOM SNAKEWEED
It was one of the 200 varieties of plants collected by the Lewis & Clark Expedition in 1804 and in 1805. The collection was sent to the President of the U.S. (Jefferson), and are today with the 
Academy of  Natural Sciences. 


With a  plant having  "snake" in its name....we've got to insert one
  into this section, so here he is......the only live snake photographed
 this year near the Grove Creek Trailhead.  A quite pretty 
VISION of NATURE too,  
calling it "pretty" I guess we have to say "she"  is  a.....
GOPHER SNAKE


Native Americans bunched the dried stems and used them as a broom.  
The plant was also used by them for snakebites....the name coming from these two uses. 
Tells us:
Uses Ethnobotanic: Broom snakeweed was used by numerous Native American tribes for a variety of reasons. The Blackfoot use the roots of broom snakeweed in an herbal steam as a treatment for respiratory ailments. The Dakota use a concentrate made from the flowers as a laxative for horses. The Lakota took a decoction of the plant to treat colds, coughs, and dizziness. The Navajo and Ramah Navaho rubbed the ashes of broom snakeweed on their bodies to treat headaches and dizziness. They also chewed the plant and applied it to wounds, snakebites, and areas swollen by insect bites and stings. The Comanche used the stems of broom snakeweed to make brooms for sweeping their residences. 
Wildlife: Broom snakeweed is utilized by some large ungulates including mule deer and pronghorn antelope. Broom snakeweed can comprise up to 28% of the pronghorn diet. 


BENEFITS & CAUTIONS
The plant is considered toxic during the early growth period.  Cattle may abort when a lot is eaten.  For medicinal purposes it is believed that an infusion of the stems and leaves have diuretic and anti-inflamatory effects.






*****************
 5. 
COMMON SUNFLOWER
Below we see the first sunflower springing to life in 
2023 on May 13th
but I observed new sunflower plants germinating all summer long,
 even during the hottest and dryest part of the summer when the ground was dust. 



July 1st

July 10th

Teaches us:

Our foothill Common or Wild Sunflower is an annual wildflower native to North America. 


EDIBILITY
The seeds, leaves, buds and petals are all edibile and contain many good nutrients.  
click on that to go to:  The Steemit website.

Of course, if you are picking the flower buds of a plant, you are taking the future flower, too. Here’s a strategy for having plenty of sunflower flowers, even if you are eating their buds -- plant the multi-flowered varieties. Their flowers and buds are smaller than the giants, but you can have your flowers and eat some buds, too.

Even with single-flowering sunflowers, you can still have both food and flowers. I can’t guarantee this works for every variety of sunflower, but it’s worked on every kind I’ve tried it on. Take that single, top bud off and the plant will start to put on side buds, at the junction where leaves attach to the stalk. Those flowers will be smaller, but that’s better than nothing.

The website explains how to:
Sautee themGrill themHave them in soup, & Faux Artichoke

At:
We learn:  
The Paiute used a decoction of sunflower root to alleviate rheumatism. Pawnee women ate a dry seed concoction to protect suckling children. The Pima applied a poultice of warm ashes to the stomach for worms and used a decoction of leaves for high fevers and as a wash for horses' sores caused by screwworms.

Go to that website to learn much more about Native American's use of the SUNFLOWER.

Below we see the DETAILS OF DISC FLORETS



THE WHOLE WORLD LIKES TO EAT SUNFLOWERS!


In our foothills late summer shows huge patches of SUNFLOWERS,
 where harvesting a bunch of buds won't have any negative affect on
 their future.  




You can see that we are not dealing with the GIANT SUNFLOWER that produces those seeds many like to eat.  But the small seeds are liked by the rabbits and other small mammals.  


*********************

6.
LITTLE or DWARF SUNFLOWER


At most they grow to 2 to 3 feet tall, but usually much smaller.  Like their larger cousin, they are very drought resistent and require full sunlight.   They do well planted in containers.  


What has been said about edible and medicinal uses of the Common
 or Wild Sunflower, is the same with the Dwarf variety.  
 


*********************

7.
WHITETOP or HOARY CRESS


From this website we learn:
These plants are native to the Middle East and the former USSR. The weed seeds were probably brought to this country with contaminated alfalfa seed. Whitetop was first identified in Gallatin County, Montana in 1916. It has spread to about 32,000 acres across the state. It may be more prolific in other western states.


 Edibility: As all mustards, this early season plant has been traditionally eaten as a spring green. Add a few leaves to a salad for a spicy mustard flavor. Some prefer to cook whitetop in one or two changes of water (3-5 min. each). Please see the forager blogs Hunger and Thirst for Life, as well as Wild Food Girl for recipes and discussions of a potential safety concern.


 According to the Plants for a Future database"young leaves and shoots [are eaten] raw in salads or cooked as a potherb. A report says that the young leaves contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide, though does not give any more details. In small quantities this substance is fairly harmless, and has even been recommended as having health benefits, but caution is suggested if you eat these leaves. 


The pungent leaves are used as a seasoning. The seed is used as a condiment, it is a pepper substitute." [Plants for a Future]. Rub the dried pods between your hands to knock the seeds loose and gently blow to separate the pods. Add the seeds to a salad or any dish for flavoring, or grind them and add vinegar and oil to make mustard paste.





Looking foward to eating some HOARY CRESS seeds!
******************



*****************

Now we come to a plant I confidantly identified from
 the beginning, as the leaf looked like the geranium plants my mother would plant around the house.  I furthermore said I had been awakened to it's medical use by Native Americans....learned on the series DR. QUINN, MEDICINE WOMAN about it's critical medical uses.....but I was wrong, it is rather:

8.
WESTERN RAGWEED


It is another of the more prolific plants in the foothills germinating 
in May and taking all summer to go through its life cycle as we will see.  



Rather than what I wrongly imagined, 
it is famous for causing fall-time hay fever...symptoms: Cough, runny
 nose, and an itchy throat....in 23 million Americans including
 your's truly, it is called
 RAGWEED!  

In June it begins to form its flower/seed head. 


Working on it all summer.


On the 

Bellarmine University

  website 
we learn of positive uses by the Native Americans:
Preparations made from leaves and roots of ragweeds have been used by native peoples as astringents, skin disinfectants, emetics, antidotes, and fever reducers. Teas or tinctures have been used for the treatment of fevers, pneumonia, nausea, intestinal cramps, diarrhea and menstrual disorders.
And Google tells us:
Herbalists use ragweed to relieve nausea, menstrual discomfort, and fever


I'm showing you a whole summer of evolution of the flower 
and seed heads.



By October 23rd the plants had become like this.



And by November 6th some really got the spirit of Autumn!


Others on that date looking like this,
and below by November 20th like we see below.




In nature the system is apparently to have each plant produce literally thousands of seeds 
to make sure that after the birds, the mice, the squirrels, the rabbits, the insects, etc..
...ALL GET THEIR SHARE...
 .....enough left over randomly distributed to assure a future crop.....of HAY FEVER!


***********************

9.
 CHICORY

Chicory is a perrenial plant that is native to the  Old World but introduced into the U.S. and Australia.  All parts of the plant, at the right point in growth, are edible.  

It's list of uses from all kinds of publications is very long.  I'll list
 them just for fun but also insert a DESCLAIMER to make it all
 more interesting, and force you to do your research if you are
 thinking about eating or using it for more than its BEAUTY.


It normally has a pretty blue flower as seen above, but below we see  a rare white one I found. 


As we see a few picrtures ago, it is a plant that has a cluster of leaves at the bottom, from where leafless stalks rise where  we find the beautiful flowers.

ITS  PURPORTED BENEFICIAL  USES
1.  Root has a mild laxative effect and decreases swelling. People use chicory for liver and heart health, constipation, indigestion, high blood pressure, and many other conditions..... but no scientific data https://www.webmd.com/
2,  Clinical evidence depicts chicory to be anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and prebiotic. In addition, chicory has been shown to promote good digestion, to regulate appetite, and to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal diseases....
3. Some of the potential chicory root benefits include reduced stress, decreased inflammation and better gut health. It may also help protect the liver, promote blood sugar control and help manage osteoarthritis.
  https://draxe.com/nutrition/chicory-root/
4.  Chicory roots possess anti-inflammatory activity, and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines, antioxidant effects, and their free radical scavenging activity. PubMed Central (PMC)  
5. Celebrate chicory with our favourite recipes for this leafy veg. Eat raw or cooked in salads, tarts and more. www.bbcgoodfoods.com 
6.  The fiber content in chicory could help reduce weight as it causes a feeling of fullness and could reduce your calorie intake.  Medicine/Net
7.  Unlike coffee, chicory does not contain caffeine and therefore is considered as a great option for fighting stress. It also has sedative properties and soothes the mind and can help you get a healthy sleep.Tata 1mg Capsules
8.  Extracts from the chicory root have been found to protect against the chemical induced free radicals and possible toxicity to the liver. Rich in antioxidants, it significantly reduced oxidative stress, prevented cell damage and improved liver toxicity. 
9.  Chicory root extract contains a natural protein adiponectin, that helps to regulate the glucose levels and fatty acid breakdown. Studies suggest that the chicory root extract could help to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes.Tata 1mg Capsules
10. Rich in inulin (the natural fiber), chicory root helps to add bulk to the bowel, promotes peristaltic motions and promotes secretion of gastric juices. All this together improves the overall digestion of the body and helps to prevent constipation.Tata 1mg Capsules
11. Chicory root is enriched with anti-inflammatory compounds that help to fight conditions such as osteoarthritis pain. Positives results have been observed in studies that were conducted to check for the efficacy of the root in relieving muscle pain, joint soreness, and general aches.

So, go ahead and add this wonder herb to your bucket list and reap its countless benefits. Eat Healthy, Stay Happy! Tata 1mg Capsules

FOR FARMERS:  Chicory is often included as a supplement for livestock feed because it is toxic to intestinal parasites. Studies have shown that animals that eat chicory have fewer worms. It is also highly digestible for ruminant animals because of its low fiber concentration  .https://www.novicefarmer.com/chicory.html 

THERE ARE CAUTIONS REGARDING ITS USE....SO..

....DO YOUR RESEARCH.

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10.
WOODS' ROSE 


Scattered around, here and there in the foothills 
we find a pleasant surprise in a very literal
DIVINE VISION of NATURE
called 
Woods' Rose.


There is another similar wild rose called DOG ROSE with a difference we can see by borrowing a portion of a picture of the 
Dog Rose....from the  TREE  GUIDE UK

Compare this picture with the Woods' Rose above and its easy to note the difference. 

 THE ORIGEN OF ITS NAME
We learn from:
 By Orla O’Callaghan,
I'll insert a few fascinating paragraphs about this 
WONDEROUS VISION of NATURE (C.A.)
The Woods’ Rose got its common and botanical names from Joseph Woods, an Englishman who was an architect and a botanist. In 1818, he published an extensive study of the Rose family in the Transactions of the Linnean Society, a prestigious society of botanists and other scientists in England

The fruit of the Woods’ Rose is commonly called a hip (some call it a  "berry"). The technical term for the fruit is a pome. Woods’ Rose hips are round. They turn a glossy red in the fall and persist throughout the winter. You can use the hips to identify the Woods’ rose, even when the flower is long past. Rose hips have many medicinal uses. Native Americans used medicine derived from the rose to treat diarrhea, indigestion, colds, wounds, and as an eye wash for snow blindness. 

Rose hips are packed with vitamin C. Early western pioneers planted roses near their homes to help prevent scurvy, a disease caused by a vitamin C deficiency. Whenever I am out hiking in Colorado, if I see a rose growing in a clearing, I look for the foundations or ruins of a pioneer or mining cabin. Today, scurvy is rare, because we have easy access to vitamin C; however, in the past, scurvy was a deadly disease. Sailors suffered and died from scurvy. Prior to 1753, the threat of scurvy limited how long, and how far people could travel at sea. In 1753, a British Naval doctor, James Lind, showed that scurvy could be prevented and treated by adding citrus fruits into the sailor’s diet. During World War II, citrus fruits were hard to come by. People collected rose hips and made syrup from them to ensure people had adequate vitamin C. My parents grew up in Ireland during the War. As children they had severe food rations, and no access to citrus fruits. My Dad told me the first time in his life that he ever saw an orange was when a German U-Boat was destroyed off the coast of Ireland and a crate of oranges floated ashore. The whole village came down to the shore and divided the oranges up. My Dad said those few orange sections he got were the sweetest thing he had ever eaten.


 In addition to being a great source of vitamin C, roses have many other medicinal and culinary uses. If properly prepared, most parts of roses are edible, including the petals, stems, roots, and of course the hips. Rose hips can be made into teas, syrups, jams and jellies. Parts of the hips can be eaten raw. If you are interested in the edibility or medicinal uses of the Woods’ Rose, I recommend you check out Edible and Medicinal Plants of the Rockies by Linda Kershaw. Never eat a plant unless you are certain what plant it is and how to safely prepare the plant, and its parts, to make it safe.


Whether or not you choose to plant them in your garden, you should appreciate the Woods’ Rose for its beauty, fragrance and healing properties. It is a pretty amazing plant. So get out and hike the foothills in Pueblo County and see if you can find the Woods’ Rose (or one of its hybrids – sorry it is the attorney in me). All you casual botanist go enjoy our amazing native plants! 



 
One strange characteristic of Woods' Rose is that, as Sagebrush, the
 plants also have MOSS GALLS
We see below what we can now call
MOSSY ROSE GALLS
The black items are old dead Galls


To learn about them I found a good explanation at:
I'll quote a number of short paragraphs inserted between pictures of the GALLS.

The English novelist, Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton, actually said, "Love thou the rose, yet leave it on its stem."  I adjusted his quote to illustrate how to control bizarre looking mossy rose galls. The hairy-looking galls are produced under the direction of the gall-wasp, Diplolepis rosae (family Cynipidae).  Ridding roses of the galls rids them of the wasp.

 

The wasp occurs both in Europe and North America and will produce their characteristic galls on several species in the Rosa genus.  They are most commonly found in Ohio on hybrid tea roses; however, I've also seen them on multiflora rose.  Old galls look like a ball of moss stuck on the rose stems, thus the common name.



Cutting the galls open will reveal individual chambers, each housing a single wasp larva.  The overall size of the gall depends on the number of larval chambers.  Single-chambered galls usually measure less than 1" in diameter.  Multi-chambered galls may measure over 2" in diameter, filaments included.


The wasps have one generation per year.  Females initiate gall formation when they use their ovipositors (= stingers) to insert eggs into leaf buds in the spring.  The resulting wasp larvae exude chemicals that further direct gall formation.

 

The galls change color from light green to crimson red as the wasp larvae mature.  Late instar larvae spend the winter in dark reddish-brown galls and new adults emerge in the spring.  Spent galls become grayish-brown and often remain attached throughout the season



As with most plant galls, mossy rose galls cause no harm to the overall health of their rose hosts.  In fact, I believe they add ornamental value to roses, but I may be gall-biased:  love thou the rose gall.  Of course, if the galls detract from hybrid tea display roses, just apply my adjusted form of Bulwer-Lytton's quote.  The gall-makers can be effectively managed by pruning and destroying developing galls.  What a pity.

UPDATE February 15, 2024
On MOSS GALLS

On February 15, 2024 on my now daily hikes in the foothills I found a  wintering Wood's Rose  loaded with galls, and decided to take a large one home to disect and show what is developing inside.


This was a large one about 2" in diameter.


Home I began clipping off the moss filaments from one side. The filaments were totally dry.
The gall inside the moss had a hard shell. I'll get another one, trim off all the filaments and show what the hard shell is like and insert below.

I cut off one side revealing inside several chambers with larvae.


Then I cut it more or less in half.

 I counted 12 larvae.  The entire Gall would have had at least 24.

I'll keep an eye on this plant near the Trailhead, and see what develops in the
 Spring and very likely add more information and photos.  
 

Below we see the hips, berries or fruit that has seeds inside. 
 As explained above they are loaded with nutrition and can be eaten.


Below I opened one up to show its contents....the seeds. 
They were a bit shriveled up as I had them for a week or so before doing this.


I will of course plant these seeds, some in large containers, 
others in the ground in landscaping my home with all of the best 
DIVINE VISIONS OF NATURE
from the 
FOOTHILLS of MOUNT TIMPANOGOS.
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11. 
 EATON  PENSTEMON or FIRECRACKER
I only found once or twice this stricking wildflower in the Grove Creek area, but quite often up Battle Creek Canyon.
It is a perennial herb  native to the Western United States. 
At 
Uses: Firecracker penstemon is chiefly used as a forb component for restoration and wildlife enhancement projects. It is not noted for having value as forage for livestock and forage use is limited by big game. Its showy flowers attract pollinators and other insects which provide a food source for birds and other animals. The fibrous root system and wide canopy cover make it a good plant for low-water use landscaping (i.e. roadsides) and other ornamental plantings. 
Firecracker penstemon was used by Native Americans for the treatment of: spider bites, stomach troubles, to reduce bleeding, backache, snakebite, as a veterinary aid, and for healing of burns (Native American Ethnobotany Database)

There are 3 sub-species but I have seen only one in the foothills....but in the Uinta Mountains and their foothills I have found all three.

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12. 
WESTERN COTTONWOOD TREE
In the bottom of the canyon along the creek there is an abundance of trees, which I sort of have ignored except for Gamble's Oak, Maple, Choke cherries, and Crab apple, but with Autumn I all of a sudden noticed one I recognized...the Cottonwood.  There likely are more, but this is the only one I've noticed and photographed

The Western cottonwood tree is very common in Utah, often found along the rivers and creeks, such as this one I photographed along Grove creek just below the junction of the road to the diversion dam and the trail up the mountain.
It does grow fast that make it good to recover an area hurt by a forest fire, but then becomes so dominant it crowds out more useful trees.
It's wood is soft and not considered good for firewood, nor for construction.


For trees it doesn't live very long...about 100 years, and is a tree that experts recommend you don't plant as it is prone to insect damage and disease and easily split and brought down by storms.
A PERSONAL/FAMILY EXAMPLE
On the Morgan farm in Nibley, Cache Valley there were two tall cottonwood trees on the south side of my grandparent's home where Grandpa Morgan put a bar across quite high up and made us a giant swing that we loved to use.
But one night a good sized storm with a lot of wind, split a fork in the tree on the house side and it came down doing damage to the house.  It was then noticed that in that split was lodged a wedge left there many years before.  The tree grew up around it, but unnoticed and forgotten was that weak spot that eventually the wind took advantage of......ending our fun!


Some Native American tribes considered the cottonwood sacred, as a symbol for the sun... the photo above sort of indicating why.  It was also believed to be the birthplace of the stars, and a connection between the earth and the sky.
The name of the tree "cottonwood" comes from the fluffy stuff, like cotton,  around the seeds that has them scattered far and wide by the wind.  The fluff isn't cotton, but actually can be spun like cotton to make a low-grade fabric. It also can be used as stuffing like for pillows, and there was a time it was used for life preservers.

Often on my adventures in remote areas like we see above west of the Henry Mountains, and the one in a previous chapter driving down a dry wash south of Vernal, Utah when I came close to getting a bobcat....the washes and creeks were almost always lined by Cottonwood trees and their flashes of gold in the Fall.

This season has ended for the Western Cottonwood in Grove Canyon.  
I'll get pictures in a few months with its pretty green leaves, 
and keep an eye out for others.

13. 
CURL LEAF MAHOGANY TREE
This is the tree where  have stopped to rest many times 
and from where I have taken some of my  panoramas like the one below taken on January 29, 2024 with a bit of winter smog over the the lake.
The mountain that rises is up to the north of Grove Creek Canyon is MAHOGANY MOUNTAIN which is the highest of what we are calling the Foothills of Timpanogos. I'll insert a picture below. 
It is  also  the name of a  Pleasant Grove school
--THE MAHOGANY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL- 
We learn from:

It is a native perrenial, evergreen small tree that can grow as tall as 35 feet, but normally  is 15 feet at best usually growing in the arid areas of foothills at low to intermediate elevations.  It is one of the oldest of trees with some shown to be 1,350 years old
Uses and Management:

Curlleaf mountain-mahogany is good forage for all classes of browsing animals in both summer and winter; it is one of the few browse species that meets or exceeds the protein requirements for wintering big game animals.

In mature stands, much of curlleaf mountain-mahogany foliage is out of reach of browsing animals but provides excellent winter cover.

The wood of curlleaf mountain mahogany is so hard and dense that it will not float. It provides excellent fuel, producing intense heat and burning for long periods. Because curlleaf mountain-mahogany wood burns slowly, it was the preferred charcoal wood used for smelting ores in the nineteenth century. It is also highly prized as a barbecue fuel.

The Goshute Indians of Utah made bows from this wood.

Because of its tolerance to heat and drought, curlleaf mountain-mahogany can be used for water-efficient landscaping in arid environments.

REPRODUCTION

Fruits/Seeds:  Fruit is a hard, narrow, and sharp-pointed achenes. The seed is tipped with a persistent feathery style, which is corkscrew-like and enables the seed to penetrate the ground. Curlleaf mountain mahogany begins producing fruit at 15 years.

********

I have showed you photographs from Battle Creek Canyon of this tree and the seed distribution system I sometimes have called plumes, that they call "feathery style."   I'll insert pictures of this below. 



Has fascinating article about Mountain Mahogany. I'll just quote the paragraph about its benefits and uses. Click above to see the entire article. 

Humans have found good uses for Curl-Leaf Mountain Mahogany for a long time. Many Native American groups use the bark for medicinal purposes. The Goshute, Paiute, and Shoshone peoples crushed up dried or slightly burned bark and used it as a dressing for burns. What's more, the Paiute and Shoshone used a decoction of bark or wood to treat many ailments, including coughs, colds, cuts, wounds, stomach aches, diarrhea, tuberculosis, and even an "unfailing cure for syphilis."1 The hard wood was also used to make bows and arrowheads. Even further back in time, prehistoric people used wood from this tree for digging sticks and other durable tools because it's so hard.
********

The following photographs are from Battle Creek Canyon, but the same tree is found all along the foothills...like the one used to introduce this small tree. 





14. 
HOODS PHLOX 
or
SHOWY PHLOX
I have added this tiny flower even though it is from January 31, 2024.  With warmer than usual weather today up to 53 degrees...18 degrees above the average, Redstem Filaree has been blossoming for several days, and today I was surprised to find several small Long Leaf  Phlox flowers in bloom , and nearby this 
beautiful white flower.  
I haven't seen  it in previous years as it apparently blossoms very early as explained below.  Last year I never even started my hikes in the foothills until March 15th.  
NOTE:  A few days later I went back to check up. Blossoming was over....maybe a deer ate her, but so far I haven't found any others blossoming. 
I've got a lot of catching up to do and to do it right the season for me has started already.  I suspect I will learn a lot  in February and half of March.   

WE LEARN FROM THE: 

• Flowering occurs in early spring before most other foothills wildflowers.
 Interesting facts Hood’s phlox grows in a dense mat, whereas longleaf phlox (page 58) often grows more upright. Leaves at the base of Hood’s phlox are usually quite hairy, while longleaf phlox leaves have few or no hairs. Above ground portions of the plant emerge from a coarse woody taproot, which may extend several feet deep. Hood’s phlox resprouts from this taproot soon after fire.

The Blackfoot people used Hood’s phlox as a mild laxative for children, to alleviate chest pains, and to make a yellow dye. 
************

15.
SHORTSTEM BUCKWHEAT 

See Chapter 3 for information . 
***********
 17.
LICHENS
A few pictures down I'll insert explanations about this most interesting and curious life form....


They don't only grow on rocks. 
Remember this old fellow?
But mainly we find them on rocks, in an unending variety....with over 3,000 varieties identified in the Rocky Mountain area. In dealing with Sagebrush I have already told the story of it shepherding other life, like Lichens, and mentioned a little about that, but here is the rest of the story.

But, we'll start by telling 
the wonderful SHEPHERD STORY of rocks, sagebrush
 and others shepherding
  two living organisms that decided to help each other survive by
 combining their talents for the survival of both. 
 I'm talking about two living organisms:  
FUNGI & ALGAE
I'm  not sure who spoke up first to begin this amazing story,  but it was as if one of them said to the other,

 "Hey friend, let's find a way to work together so that we can both not only survive, but thrive, reproduce as well as brighten up the dull rocks, the sagebrush, scrub oak and other trees!"


So, they formed what is called a symbiotic partnership.  Another way to say it with critical detail is:

A Lichen is a composite living organism resultant from algae living among the filaments of two fungi in a mutually beneficial symbiotic or partnership relationship. The fungi benefit from the carbohydrates produced by the algae.  The algae benefit by being protected from the environment  by the filaments of the fungi that gather water and nutrients from the environment and provide a home for the algae.

For me this is just another in the unending  intelligent systems of creation put in motion by our wise and all knowing 
DIVINE CREATOR. 

Above we also see growing on the rock another living plant....
....A MOSS.......
....we will learn about in the next VISION of NATURE discovered in the foothills. 














EDIBLE & MEDICINAL BENEFITS OF LICHENS
For example, lichens are used in deodorant, toothpaste, salves, extracts, and perfumes. In Japan, they use lichens in paint for its anti-mildew properties.
1 year ago
… being valuable bio-indicators of pollution, lichens provide important ecosystem services, such as binding and building soil and fixing atmospheric nitrogen
7 years ago
… and active substances have also been shown to have multiple health benefits including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-diabetes
3 years ago


By the way the beautiful Rocky Mountain goats we have on Mount Timpanogos, in the High Uintas and in many of our mountains, eat Lichens as an important part of their diet in the high rocky mountains where lichens can always be found on the rocks. I'll insert below one of my photos of a young goat surrounded by his lunch.
This young goat is surrounded by delicious LICHENS.

About 25% of 1.5 million varieties of fungi are capable of becoming a lichen, so they figure there could be at least 250,000 varieties of lichens in our world....likely a lot more. 
 3,000 species have been identified in our Rocky Mountain area.

Below I'll show you just a few of them with which I will have to do as I promised with the GRASSES, and research a name for each of the following Lichens.  







**************

17. 
FOOTHILL PINCUSHION or POLE MOSS

ANOTHER INCREDIBLE PLANT LIFE FORM THAT IS BAFFLING
We learn from:
About Pincushion Moss which appears to be the closest to the Moss we see above, which in Utah is sometimes called "Pole Moss:"
Summerized by me in simple English:

A perennial evergreen moss forming cushions of plants with a dome shape.  Because this moss is dioecious (male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals), male and female reproductive organs located on separate plants. The male plants often occur above the female plants in a dwarfed form.

I first thought from the above photo that the Moss had picked up grains of sand. Let's zoom in some.

 On uncommon occasions, fertile female plants produce solitary a spore-bearing capsule on a slender stalk.  The capsule bodies have lids long beaked in shape. Smooth hoods cover both the capsule bodies and their lids, although the hoods later break apart and fall to the ground.  After the lids fall off the capsule bodies, a ring of 16 teeth is revealed.

Obviously I was wrong. They look like seeds as the results of its REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. 

The tiny spores are released to the wind, in autumn or early winter. 

I was wrong again.....sort of.  They are not seeds, rather
CAPSULES that contain SPORES 
which are one-celled reproductive units capable of giving rise to a new individual without sexual fusion,

 The Moss is capable of reproducing asexually when its dry leaves are broken off as a result of disturbance.

Fibers  are produced at the base of each plant in order to anchor it to whatever it falls on.  If leaves are broken off, with the return of moisture, such leaves are capable of forming their own fibers and producing new  plants.  With a disturbance leaves lying on the ground are able to develop new fibers to anchor the entire cushion to the ground.

The Moss provides ideal protective cover for many small invertebrates like spiders, worms, snails etc. especially moss mites.  Several insects specialize in feeding on this and other mosses, however Pincushion Moss contains one or more toxic substances that deter its consumption.

EDIBLE & MEDICINAL USES
We learn from:
ALMANAC.COM
Traditional herbalists list many uses for moss, both the whole plants (sometimes used fresh, sometimes dried and ground) and the spores. Consult a good herbal book, such as A Modern Herbal by Mrs. M. Grieve, for details. In herbal medicine, moss is most commonly used as a diuretic or as a cure for coughs, depending on how the moss is processed and which moss is used. Irish moss is used for its mucilaginous and nutritional qualities. Sphagnum moss has been used since ancient times as a dressing for wounds.

And from:

TYPES OF MOSS

There are over 12,000 species of moss worldwide, each with unique characteristics. Some common types include Sphagnum moss, often used in gardening, and Bryum moss, frequently seen on city sidewalks. However, not all mosses are equal in their potential as food. Identifying the right type is crucial, as some varieties can be toxic.

NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF MOSS

Mosses are not known for their nutritional richness, especially when compared to conventional fruits and vegetables. However, they do contain some vitamins and minerals, primarily Vitamin C and potassium. Sphagnum moss, for instance, has historically been used as a source of Vitamin C. Despite this, mosses generally have a low calorie count and minimal protein, making them more of a survival food rather than a substantial dietary component.

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL USES OF MOSS

Throughout history, moss has played a role in human survival, especially in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions where other food sources are scarce. Indigenous peoples in these areas have used mosses like Reindeer Moss as emergency food. In some cultures, mosses have also been used as a filler or dietary supplement during times of famine. However, these uses were typically out of necessity rather than preference, and moss was rarely a staple food. In modern times, moss occasionally appears in specialized culinary applications, but it’s more of a novelty than a common ingredient.

SAFETY AND EDIBILITY

When considering moss as a food source, safety is a paramount concern. While many types of moss are technically edible, they can also absorb pollutants from their environment, making them unsafe for consumption in certain areas. Additionally, some moss species can be toxic. For instance, Peat moss, commonly found in bogs, can be harmful if ingested. It’s essential to properly identify moss species and understand their environment before considering them for consumption.

HOW TO IDENTIFY AND HARVEST EDIBLE MOSS

Identifying edible moss requires knowledge and caution. Species like Reindeer Moss and Oak Moss are generally safe, but accurate identification is crucial to avoid toxic varieties. When harvesting moss, it’s important to choose areas away from pollutants and to gather sparingly to avoid damaging the ecosystem. Moss should be collected from clean, unpolluted areas, ideally away from roads, industrial areas, and agricultural sites where it might have absorbed harmful chemicals.

Google for uses like:
MOSS FOR LANDSCAPING & INDOOR DECORATION



***********


Below is the area used mostly for the study of GRASSES, which
 we'll see in the next segment.

GRASSES of the FOOTHILLS
At this time I will make no effort to identify each of the many kinds
 of grasses I have photographed, but likely during the long, cold
 winter, I will work on doing that and add names and information.

Many of the grasses were found in the area seen below when the  beginning of the growing season began.....

June 10th
....below I'll add one of the same area in mid-season, and then one from the beginning of winter. 
July 17th

November 21st

Many grasses were in this area where I photoshoped  being watched by a
 curious bobcat....

.....tracks of which I have since seen many times as seen below including 
the partial track of a young one.


I'm still hoping soon to find tracks of a Cougar 
that will be twice as wide as a Bobcat. 
This will most likely happen in late winter, or early spring.  

In the fringes of this area I frequetly caught fleeting glimpses of QUAIL and finally got a got photo or two, like......

A MATING PAIR of QUAIL

Now with many kinds of 
GRASSES....

Gradually I'll begin identifying them and inserting their names. 








A tiny COTTONTAIL RABBIT feeding on the grass seeds and green folage..




An adult COTTONTAIL RABBIT in the same area.



A couple getting to know each other. 



A great place to see the PRAYING MANTIS, his color matching what he (or she) is eating.








Later in the season with the grasses drying up, another 
PRAYING MANTIS camoflaged to match the background.

















This is a KATYDID, that on 
hatching from an egg is a nymph looking a lot like the adult, but without wings.  Eventually they molt casting off their exoskeletons getting wings as they become adults. They are basically harmless.




The growing season is now ending.

***********************

NOW A SECTION ESPECIALLY 
FOR
AS YET UNIDENTIFED PLANTS
Some of them were shown in previous chaptera listed in chronological order as discovered and won't be repeated in the final Album that will be just for identified plants. that next season I will watch closely from beginning to end to be able to give a full report, including with...hopefully their identification. .....
They are in different stages of growth , but I somehow neglected
seeing them in the beginning or  following up on them:

1.
This one was prsented in chapter 1 as the first one to blossom 


2. 

I recognize the leaf, yet the seed producing stage doesn't match the known plant.  It is apparently a perrenial plant as even in mid-December the plant base is still alive with green leaves.






3. 



4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 

8. 


9.


10.


11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.


18.
Similar to Prickly Lettuce



19.
"SAGEBRUSH-LIKE"
On the right IN LEAF & COLOR/TEXTURE 
 

20.
It is a large bush-like plant found along one of the trails that comes down to the Trailhead. 

I recall it having a yellow flower photographed a year ago, not to attractive, so I didn't keep it. I'll do a better job documenting its evolution next season and complete this section, but I do have a few photos I'll insert below.








21.



22.



23. 

Now we come to another quite exotic looking plant I so far have not 
been able to identify it, I call  it:
  "EXOTIC"


It's leaves seems to be like Douglas Dusty Maiden  we see below and described in Chapter 4,


So, for the time being, I'll just insert below a series of photographs that 
show its development until December.








The hooks we see here remind us of the 
Common Burdock flower's hooks, as well as Velcro.



The above picture was taken on November 14th.  It is about the same today, mid-December.  Hopefully before turning this online book into a printable version, I will have been able to identify it, and give useful information.

Last of all a new sprout of this plant in early December.  




24.
Today on December 26th I found a new plant that I'm not sure about, so will insert two interesting photos of the leaves.  Along with others I will watch this one from early Spring on.
It's maybe one I've seen before, but with freeezing weather in the foothills, it takes on a new look for me. 

25.
This is a beautiful flower on a fascinating stem that I photographed in Battle Creek Canyon.  I have not been able to identify it yet, but will keep trying and watch its development next season.

26.
I thought it was Sweet Yellow Clover, but the flowers are on a hard stem, rather than the one seen with Sweet Clover.

I will continue to search for the identity of this flower.

27. 
This is another  I hope to find early in the 2024 season and follow it carefully to show its development and of course be able to identify it and give information about it. 


28. 

29.

30.

31  
This is one of my favorites and I have been frustrated at trying to identify it.  I'm quiet sure it is of the lily family.  I'll eventually discover its identity  and in Chapter 3 be able to give good information about it. 


32. 
 UNIDENTIFIED MUSHROOM  


33. 
SHRUB with BERRIES

There are a number of bushes or shrubs with red berries in the foothills, but so far I have not investigated them, but 
I will pay more attention to them in the 2024 season. 

All of the picrtures here are of the same shrub.





The WINTER.
Pictures below taken on December 20th.  





Apparently the berries are eaten by what is likely a bird and not poisonous....unless the creature was desperately trying to get rid of what was eaten.  As pictured previously....a rock squirrel...wouldn't be the hungry one as they are now in hibernation.  My curiousity is aroused that I have to do something about in 2024.

***************

Now we move south past Battle Creek Canyon and make 
a quick visit at the end of the season to 
DRY CANYON.
One gets to it driving north from Orem on Hwy. 89  turning east on 2000 North (in Orem) which soon becomes 200 South in Lindon.  Continue towards the mountain and you arrive at....


At the entrance, and in the parking lot there are Forest Service 
signs and maps

It is plain to see that I did this quite late in the season 
on November 13th.





This obviously will be on my schedule for the 2024 season, dividing
 myself between Grove Canyon, Battle Creek Canyon, and here as I
 can image it being a beautiful canyon to hike in when the vegetation
 is springing to life.






A ROCK SQUIRREL waiting for the Winter hibernation period. 



It was late in the day so I didn't go very far, but up the canyon 
is visible the south end of Mount Timpanogos. 


We are now coming back to the parking lot with Utah Valley 
and Lake spread out before us as the sun is setting.


So,
DRY CANYON, 
I'll see you next Spring.
*********

Now a beautiful reminder  of all the
DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE
we have seen during the 2023 season and been able to identify and give information.
Just names with little or no comment.

1.
SAND, GRASS, or STICKY BURR


2. 
PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS


3. 
YUCCA PLANT FLOWER



BLACK WIDOW SPIDER


4.  
BASIN BIG SAGEBRUSH 


5. 
BONNEVILLE BIG SAGEBRUSH


6. 
RABBITBRUSH
The beautiful yellow one
To the left Bonneville Big Sagebrush
The tallest behind Basin Big Sagebrush


7. 
GAMBEL'S  or SCRUB OAK 
 

ROCK SQUIRREL
Stocking up for the long winter.


8. 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MAPLE


9. 
WESTERN YARROW
December

10. 
FOOTHILL  DEATH CAMAS



11. 
REDSTEM FILAREE or STORK'S BILL



12. 
PROSTRATE KNOTWEED


 
13. 
CREEPING SPURGE



14. 
BLAZING STAR


15. 
HOOKERS ONION


16. 
WHITE DESERT  STAR

17. 
LEMONWEED - YELLOW PUCCOON or WESTERN STONESEED

18.  
UTAH THISTLE


19. 
MUSK or NODDING THISTLE


   20.     
 CANADIAN THISTLE    


 21. 
RUSSIAN THISTLE
TUMBLEWEED


 22. 
PROSTRATE  VERBAIN


23. 
DULL OREGON GRAPE 



24
TALL OREGON GRAPE




 25. 
PRICKLY LETTUCE

 26. 
DOUGLAS DUSTY MAIDEN
or 
FALSE YARROW



 DESERT TARANTULA



27. 
STINGING NETTLE 


28. 
WOOLY MULLEIN or MINER'S CANDLE


29. 
COMMON BURDOCK


30.
PRAIRIE SAGE



TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLY


31.
CHOKE CHERRY BLOSSOMING


32.
CRAB APPLES


33.
PUSSY WILLOW 


34.
SPREADING DOGBANE or INDIAN HEMP



35.
SPREADING FLEABANE



COTTONTAIL RABBIT

And hot on his trail.....
A BOBCAT

And, now with Winter upon us and the deer and elk coming down to the foothills 
and nipping off the buds of Smooth Sumac  as seen below...

In a whole patch of Smooth Sumac I only found one that wasn't nipped off...on the left. 
And today, February 1st, I'm finding more and more  Red Stem Filaree browsed too.  They are beating me to it....so no salads for Little Andy!


So I wasn't surprised to all of a sudden in mid-January 2024 when hiking off trail pushing myself up higher on the slopes of Mount Mahogany to find signs of a big predator having dinned on venison.  

The footprint above on the right was clear for me but is bit unclear in my photo....over  4" wide so it wasn't  a bobcat, rather a COUGAR.   The sure give-away for identification is the large size of the scat or poop that is full of deer hair indicating it is a... 
COUGAR or MOUNTAIN LION... 
Another sure sign of identification is it being encased in a sort of mucus covering normal for big cats..... as a lubricant. 

A PERSONAL NOTE:
In my youth when 15...I first began feeling like a "mountain man" ....   I'll insert a clip from my personal history
 0-22 years called "My Checkered....autobiography"

THE MOUNTAIN MAN IN ME AWAKENED….TRAPPING A COUGAR!
To move a bit more in the direction of adventure I developed a friendship with Dick Johnson, the younger brother of our Scout Master. Soon we began making bicycle trips all over..... I especially enjoyed cycling with Dick out over the Berkley hills towards Walnut Creek where his family had a small property with a couple of horses. Dick taught me the basics about horses and riding....years later leading to a segment in my High Uinta books called:  The John Wayne Look-alike Adventure,  but my interest was more about exploring the hills, especially following a creek that came through the property.

There I began seeing animal tracks and recognized most of them along the creek as being from raccoons. At that time I was taking a correspondence course in Taxidermy and wanted to get some animals to practice on. So, for the next trip to the farm I took with me a trap that I had bought and set it along the creek, using tuna fish as bait.

With that we had to return the next day but I was wondering how I'd kill a raccoon if one was in my trap. As I approached the spot with a club in hand I immediately noticed the ground was all stirred up and found that the trap was gone, the 
 stake having been pulled up. It was easy to see what had happened by the cougar tracks in the area. I hated to lose my trap, but also grateful as the killing of a trapped cougar would have been more than I had bargained for.

But, having actually trapped a cougar had me all of a sudden feeling like a mountain man, as though I was modern Jedediah Smith, my hero, from that day to today as I am dedicated to my High Uintas Project

36.
DESERT  PLUME or PRINCE'S GOLDEN PLUME



37.
AMERICAN VETCH



38.
SCARLET GLOBEMALLOW



39.
LONG LEAF PHLOX



40.
SMOOTH SUMAC



41.
WHITE BINDWEED



42.
UTAH SWEETVETCH
 
43.
WHITE WOODLAND ASTER


44.
JIM HILL MUSTARD 


45.
DODDER PLANT 


46.
WILD PARSLEY

47. 
DWARF CAT'S EYES



48. 
YELLOW STAR THISTLE


49.
PINK BINDEWEED


50.
NINE LEAF PARSLEY


51.
CURLEY DOCK


52. - 57.
At least 5 verieties
PENSTEMON FAMILY






58.
HOUNDSTONGUE or GYPSY FLOWER

59.
MEADOW SALSIFY


60.
WESTERN BLUE FLAX


61.
SMALL or SALAD BURNET


62.
ALFALFA


63.
ARROW-LEAFED BALSAMROOT


64.
CLIFF ROSE



GRAY HAIRSTREAK BUTTERFLY


65.
CURLYCUP GUMWEED


66.
 INDIAN PAINTBRUSH


67.
DESERT PAINTBRUSH


68.
SEGO LILY
UTAH STATE FLOWER


69.
GOLDEN ASTER


70.
SHOWY RUSHPINK



71.
SPIDER MILKWEED




72.
YELLOW SPIDER MILKWEED


73.
SWEET CLOVER



74.
 SAINFOIN or HOLY CLOVER




75.
SIBERIAN PEA  SHRUB Family 


76.
SIBERIAN PEA SHRUB


77. 
GOLDEN CLEMATIS



78.
GOLDENROD


79. - 86.
LEAFY ASTER
At least 7 varieties 
 






 




87.
 EASTON  PENSTEMON or FIRECRACKER



88.
POISON IVY




AMCHE from Guatemala


With the same oil on its leaves as Poison Ivy so produces
the same allergic reacion




89. 
MOTH MULLEIN




90.
REDROOT BUCKWHEAT


91.
GOATHEAD PUNCTURWEED


92.
DESERT MADWORT


93.
BROOM SNAKEWEED

GOPHER SNAKE 

94.
COMMON SUNFLOWER


95.
DWARF SUNFLOWER


96.
HOARY CRESS


97.
WESTERN RAGWEED


98.
CHICORY
CHICORY



99.
WOODS' ROSE


100.
WESTERN COTTONWOOD TREE

101.
CURL LEAF MOHAGANY TREE



102. 
DANDELIONS 


103. 
CREEPING SPEEDWELL 
or
    BIRD'S  EYE 
or
   GYPSY WEED 


104.
SHORTSTEM BUCKWHEAT



105. 
HOOD'S PHLOX 
or 
SHOWY PHLOX  

As I was taking  photos of this beautiful flower I noticed a little red spec moving around and took a telephoto shot seen below......

The photo below is already magnified from a standing position 
with my long 400mm. telephoto lens


.....and of course I had to get down on my knees and do my best
 to zoom in as close as I could.  I first thought it was a 
CLOVER MITE, but now looking at the enlarged picture 
conclude it rather was a 
CHIGGER 
smaller than  1/32nd of an inch in diameter the size of a Clover Mite. Chiggers are well known to bite and cause skin irritation.  

******************

18 GRASSES
***********************

GREATEST DISCOVERY INTRODUCED ALREADY
HERE AGAIN BELOW
SIBERIAN PEA SHRUB FLOWER family
SIBERIAN PEA SHRUB FLOWER 

******************

TOTALS DOCUMENTED

107 IDENTIFIED PLANTS/FLOWERS/SHRUBS/TREES/etc,...to be built on in 2024

33 UNIDENTIFIED PICTURED THROUGHOUT....a work in progress

18 GRASSES yet UNIDENTIFIED but will be done  soon
***************
158 plants photographed
*****************
For me the :
MOST BEAUTIFUL DIVINE VISION
of NATURE   
A GIFT FROM  OUR LOVING CREATOR
 SAINFOIN or HOLY CLOVER
**************


PREFACE TO CHAPTER 6
We are now in the winter season when seemingly much of the
 life of the foothills either dies or goes into hibernation, leaving us
 under the gaze of what  really seems  dead.....created millions of
 years ago.

THEIR'S IS A LIVELY PAST CRUCIAL TO ALL OF OUR 
DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE.
To say the least a very up-side-down, jumbled 
puzzle of the past.....

....whose story needs to be told and appreciated...at least with  a few glimpses 
to enliven our curiosity and widen our horizons.
  
 THE SENTINELS pictured  at the 
beginning of this chapter and again below in winter.....
 
....are   gawking and begging me to add a 
Chapter 6 
which I have now done, adding to this  book...
..the GEOLOGY, or simply 
the ROCKS and what grows on them 
that had a life  we have to learn about and appreciate because we humans, and all the DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE were born from those rocks, minerals, and dust of the earth. 
So, there is still a crucial and important story to tell for without them and their life giving and building nutrients none of us would be here. So read on in  Chapter 6 that shows us the foundation of all the 
 amazing DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE  that will  
inspire us during 2024 and on into the future.

The Lord and Creator of all encouraged us to LEARN about all such things, saying:

 And I give unto you a commandment that you shall teach one another...... that you may be 

instructed more perfectly in theory, in principle,  in all things.... Of things both in

 heaven and in the earth, and under the earth; things which have been, things which are, 

things which must shortly come to pass; That ye may be prepared in all things. 

D & C 88:77-80

So, I have finished  chapter 6 to help us understand some and...

...at least appreciate...

more the 

CREATION of all the DIVINE VISIONS of NATURE...
...the Lord crowning HIS GLORIOUS WORK  with his best....
....human beings...US...with limitless potential for learning, for growth, improvement, for progress, for doing GOOD! 

It is a big subject and actually quite a puzzle, but we will all 
at least come to appreciate more the:
 CREATION as 
recorded in ageless & beautiful rocks and minerals that make up
 MOUNT TIMPANOGOS and her FOOTHILLS 
as well as all the divine creations of the Lord.
So, continue to 

































































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